A History of Veganism

This essay focuses on the first few decades of the original Vegan Society. It was partly written to support the contention that veganism is a rejection of nonhuman exploitation that goes beyond dietary guidelines. Many of the resources used in this document are available for free. Find links in the select references. Learn the history of vegetarianism to better understand the origins of veganism.

written 2009-10; October to May  |  updated July 2011

The term vegan initially identified a diet free of anything taken from nonhuman animals. It was coined following the failure of reformists who thought ‘vegetarian’ should exclude birds' eggs and ruminants' milk. This helps explain the dietary roots of ‘vegan’. However, a few points must be made: 1) Some of the earliest and most active vegans clearly stated their opposition to all nonhuman exploitation. 2) The Vegan Society encouraged alternatives to non-food related exploitation from the beginning. 3) Within just a few years, the definition of ‘vegan’ used by the society evolved to encompass these positions.

Vegetarian Reformers Break Away
Donald Watson (1910-2005) was pivotal to the emergence and early development of veganism. He became a vegetarian in 1924 after realizing that his uncle's farm was a "death row where every creature's days were numbered by the point at which it was no longer of service to human beings" [0]. Watson later joined and become a secretary of the Vegetarian Society's branch in Leicester, England. He eventually came to believe that vegetarianism was overdue for reform, and he began "corresponding with a very small number of people, scattered far and wide" who shared his concerns. In December 1943, Watson gave the presentation "Should Vegetarians Eat Dairy Produce?" at a local society meeting [1]. One point he made during this period is that "the cow feels the loss of her calf in much the same way that a human mother would feel the loss of her child" [2]. Watson was opposed to consuming birds' eggs but they had "all but vanished" from the English market during the time of World War II, so ruminants' milk became a focus [3]. Among his arguments [4]:

Hens cannot be produced without also producing similar numbers of cocks. In order to maintain the stability of any poultry business most of these cocks have to be killed off.

One of Watson's earliest comrades was Leslie Cross (1914-1979), who became vegan in 1942 and was vice president of the Vegan Society by 1951 [5]. Watson considered Cross a "great friend" and said he "must be put in the records" as an "outstanding" and "faithful" contributor to the cause of veganism. To address a practical hurdle on some people's path to veganism, Cross founded the Plantmilk Society in 1956. After five years this effort gave rise to Plamil, a company that in 1965 began selling a canned soy milk concentrate in London shops. Cross described his objections to using cows for milk in a 1943 letter printed by The Vegetarian Messenger [6]:

[To] produce a dairy cow, heart-rending cruelty, and not merely exploitation, is a necessity. Milk and its derivatives are products of pain, suffering, and abominable interference with the law of love.

Although the ranks of ‘non-dairy’, ‘total’, ‘pure’, ‘complete’, or ‘strict’ vegetarians were growing, they had yet to organize. In August 1944, Watson and Sally Shrigley tried to accommodate them [7]. They asked the Vegetarian Society to form an official non-dairy subgroup and set aside space in The Vegetarian Messenger to facilitate communication both among their faction and with those not yet convinced. Soon after being turned down, the duo convened a meeting with five others in London [8]. That day a new and independent society was established that took a name, which Watson had previously coined with his spouse Dorothy Morgan, derived from "the beginning and end of vegetarian". Their first manifesto, from November 1944, presented two objectives and text expounding upon them [9]:

The Aims of The Vegan Society are: 1) To advocate that man's food should be derived from fruits, nuts, vegetables, grains and other wholesome non-animal products and that it should exclude flesh, fish, fowl, eggs, honey and animals' milk, butter, and cheese. 2) To encourage the manufacture and use of alternatives to animal commodities.

The Vegan Society seeks to abolish man's dependence on animals, with its inevitable cruelty and slaughter, and to create instead a more reasonable and humane order of society. Whilst honouring the efforts of all who are striving to achieve the emancipation of man and of animals, The Vegan Society suggests that results must remain limited so long as the exploitation in food and clothing production is ignored.

The Vegan Society is eager that it should be realised how closely the meat and dairy produce industries are related. The atrocities of dairy farming are, in some ways, greater than those of the meat industry but they are more obscured by ignorance. Moreover, The Vegan Society asserts that the use of milk in any form after the period of weaning is biologically wrong and that, except when taken directly from the mother, it becomes polluted and unsafe. The Society, therefore, sees no honourable alternative but to challenge the traditions of orthodoxy by advocating a completely revised dietary based on reason and humane principle and guided by science and [designed] to meet physiological requirements.

It is not suggested that Veganism alone would be sufficient to solve all the problems of individual and social-well being, but so closely is its philosophy linked with morality, hygiene, aesthetics and agricultural economy that its adoption would remedy many unsatisfactory features of present-day life. Thus, if the curse of exploitation were removed, spiritual influences, operating for good, would develop conditions assuring a greater degree of happiness and prosperity for all.

November 1944 is also when Watson personally wrote, printed, and distributed the premiere issue of The Vegan News, which served as the society's periodical until being replaced in 1946 by The Vegan, a magazine still printed today [10]. He offered an analogy that identified the fundamental problem and suggested the necessity of abolition: "We can see quite plainly that our present civilisation is built on the exploitation of [nonhuman] animals, just as past civilisations were built on the exploitation of [human] slaves". However, his primary tasks were laying the groundwork for an organized contingent and presenting their case for an herbivorous diet. This focus must be seen in light of the limited nutritional knowledge available at the time. Watson admitted they were "still without much data concerning the merits of diets free from animal food". Vitamin B12 was a few years away from even being discovered [11]. The society's Eva Batt wrote in 1964 that owing to a dearth of "knowledge and experience", along with an excess of "enthusiasm", some vegan "pioneers developed symptoms of diet deficiencies and a few suffered much both physically and socially" [12]. In 1974 Leslie Cross reflected on these events [13]:

The one serious question mark over veganism has been vitamin B12, and I confess I feel there is something in the argument that this vitamin, which is never directly found but as a result of microbiological action, is important for vegan progress. I must give my reason: some early vegans became ill and this frightened off many would-be-vegans. Healthy vegans rather naturally went unremarked. It appears that some human beings have lost the natural ability to use the vitamin B12 synthesised by microbiological action in their own intestines. Some have not lost this ability: therefore there is this confused picture of some people living very successfully after a change to veganism and some not. The conclusion is that the successful ones can utilize their own vitamin B12 and the unsuccessful ones cannot. I am reasonably satisfied that this conclusion is justified and consequently that it is wise to include dietary vitamin B12 in the vegan diet. I do not say it is necessary in all cases (in fact I am positive it is not), but it is a sensible thing to do and can do no harm.

A New Paradigm Perseveres
By 1947 the Vegan Society had approximately 500 members [14]. Fay Henderson was a secretary of the organization, which had published her "Vegan Recipes" the previous year [15]. Her article "The Vegan Way of Life" appeared in The Vegetarian [16]. She stated that vegan "denotes a person who abstains from using animal products as food". Yet she lamented the "colossal presumption that mankind should have interfered so tremendously with the life and liberty of the harmless creatures of the earth", and she asserted that "one must eventually become independent of leather, bone, silk, wool and other animal products". Later that year, the magazine printed Henderson's article "Vegan Values" [17]. She further demonstrated her opposition to all nonhuman exploitation:

Once an individual realises that God-given Life is the greatest of assets he will regulate his daily habits accordingly. He will not interfere knowingly with the lives of others; he will not kill to eat or drink nor for clothing, but will find other more natural ways of feeding and protecting himself. He will not exploit either man or beast but strive to live harmoniously from day to day.

Watson became the Vegan Society's first elected president in 1946 [18]. The next year he gave a speech at the 11th World Vegetarian Congress in Stonehouse, England [19]. The following excerpts are from a report the Vegan Society printed as a pamphlet:

[Watson said] the vegan believed that if they were to be true emancipators of animals they must renounce absolutely their traditional and conceited attitude that they had the right to use them to serve their needs. They must supply those needs by other means. Throughout history, whenever man had risen against cruelty and exploitation, he had benefited himself as well as those he had emancipated. That was the law of progress. Therefore further advantages would follow if we seriously tackle those cruelties upon which civilization was still so largely built. If the vegan ideal of non-exploitation were generally adopted it would be the greatest peaceful revolution ever known, abolishing vast industries and establishing new ones in the better interests of men and animals alike.

Veganism would establish for the first time a right relationship between man and animals.

Watson recalled in 2002 that "before we decided to officially form a democratic Society" in 1946, he "literally ran the show" and often paid operating expenses himself [20]. By 1951 he had moved and left others to take responsibility for the group's future. Leslie Cross, vice president at this time, wrote a letter to the vegetarian publication World Forum that was published under the title "Veganism Defined" [21]. He relayed newly "revised and extended rules":

The Society's object and meaning of the word "veganism", have until now been matters of inference and personal predilection, are now defined as follows:

"The object of the Society shall be to end the exploitation of animals by man"; and "The word veganism shall mean the doctrine that man should live without exploiting animals."

The Society pledges itself "in pursuance of its object" to "seek to end the use of animals by man for food, commodities, work, hunting, vivisection and all other uses involving exploitation of animal life by man."

Commenting on these rules, Cross said veganism "is a principle — that man has no right to exploit the creatures for his own ends". Our present relationship with nonhuman animals, which is "one of master and slave", must "be abolished before something better and finer can be built". He envisioned a future where the "idea that his fellow creatures might be used by man for self-interested purposes would be so alien to human thought as to be almost unthinkable".

The definition and core beliefs he communicated seem to have endured within the Vegan Society. For instance, the spring 1964 issue of The Vegan debuted a statement of purpose that is consistent with the rules Cross presented thirteen years earlier [22]:

Veganism is a way of living which excludes all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, the animal kingdom, and includes a reverence and compassion for all life. It applies to the practice of living on the products of the plant kingdom to the exclusion of flesh, fish, fowl, eggs, honey, animal milk and its derivatives, and encourages the use of alternatives for all commodities derived wholly or in part from animals.

Veganism remembers man's responsibilities to the earth and its resources and seeks to bring about a healthy soil and plant kingdom and a proper use of the materials of the earth.

A similar declaration from a pamphlet the group published in 1972 [23]:

The Vegan Society advocates living on the products of the plant kingdom to the exclusion of all food and other commodities derived wholly or in part from animals. Its members base their lives on the ethic of Reverence for Life and seek to free themselves from all forms of cruelty and exploitation. They are aware of man's responsibilities to his environment and seek to promote the proper use of the resources of the earth.

Cross, maintaining the position he presented 23 years earlier, wrote in a 1974 retrospective that veganism "means and will always mean the philosophy that man should for his own advancement live without exploiting animals" [24].

Veganism Overseas and Into the Future
Catherine Nimmo (1887-1985), born in the Netherlands, was a doctor who became vegan in 1931 [25]. In 1948 she moved to California and formed the first U.S. vegan society with help from Rubin Abramowitz and the Vegan Society in England. When Jay Dinshah (1933-2000) founded the American Vegan Society in 1960, approximately two years after he first read Vegan Society literature, Nimmo dissolved her group and became the first paying member of the New Jersey-based organization.

In the February 1961 issue of Ahimsa, the American Vegan Society's magazine, Nimmo described veganism as a "practical expression of the Oneness of all Life" that is "basic, as it would not only do away with slaughter, vivisection, hunting, and fishing, but no doubt also with human exploitation" [26]. In the same issue, Dinshah wrote:

I call upon you, in the name of mercy and of justice, to speak out and to work for the eventual freedom of all creatures [...] to refuse to buy, sell, or utilize in any manner, shape or form any product of the cruelty, slavery, exploitation, pain, or death of an animal.

Nimmo discussed her philosophy in "Why are the Animals Here?", an essay printed in Dinshah's 1964 edited volume, "Here's Harmlessness: An Anthology of Ahimsa" [27]:

[We] should not look low down at any part of Life, as all are sparks of Divinity, no matter how little developed as yet. By understanding, love, and compassion, we should wisely assist others, whenever there is a chance, even as we are helped by those who are above us in life. We are all here to grow and thus have no right to hurt or to exploit any part of our kingdom. In regard to the lower kingdoms we are allowed naturally to nourish ourselves from the vegetable kingdom, but we can still help by veganic gardening, instead of using poisonous sprays and artificial fertilizers, which are detrimental to us, to the vegetable kingdom, and to the soil.

One of Dinshah's essays in the volume, "To Tell the Truth", presents nine "axioms of veganism" [28]. The first axiom states:

Life, precious though it is, is not the only basic right which we deny the animals. Perhaps no less criminal is the deprivation of their freedom, their normal family life, their liberty to develop according to natural patterns of their inclination instead of the hideous plans we, in our greed for profits, have outlined for them.

Thus, a product is clearly objectionable if any type of cruelty, direct or indirect, or even the crime of forced servitude (slavery) is involved, regardless of whether killing is involved in the acquisition of the product. In actual practice, of course, there is virtually no such thing as an animal product obtained from a creature that is permitted to live out its days unharmed; the slaughterhouse represents the end of the road for nearly all.

Eva Batt (1908-1989) was a resident of England who joined the Vegan Society in 1954. She later became a council member of the American Vegan Society and director of Plamil [29]. With the society in England she served fifteen years as chairperson, edited the commodity pages of The Vegan for over two decades, released two cookbooks, and more. Batt also owned a shop that sold goods suited for vegans and worked with Beauty Without Cruelty, a charitable trust that promoted cosmetics and clothing not derived from or tested on animals. In 1964 she contributed the essay "Why Veganism" to Dinshah's anthology [30]. Batt unequivocally confirmed that the rejection of all nonhuman exploitation is central to veganism:

There are several roads to veganism and many individual views of it, but veganism is one thing and one thing only—a way of living which avoids exploitation whether it be of our fellow men, the animal population, or the soil upon which we all rely for our very existence.

In our opinion, it matters not one jot to the innocent creature whether it [sic] is to be slaughtered for human food, medicine, clothing, sport, or such luxuries as ivory ornaments, horn, bone or tortoiseshell knick-knacks, crocodile handbags, or exotic perfume.

Victoria Moran was introduced to veganism in the early 1970s by Jay and Freya Dinshah [31]. In the early 1980s, she traveled England conducting interviews with vegans at a time when many of the pioneers were still alive. This research was used to write "Compassion: The Ultimate Ethic" (1985). In the second chapter, "Toward a Definition", she quoted Batt's description from 1964 and plainly asserted that "veganism is not simply a dietary issue" [32]. Moran reiterated this point in a chapter on raising children [33]:

[V]eganism is much more than a diet. When children are brought up in an atmosphere in which reverence for all life is both taught and practised, they often become its staunchest advocates. A love for animals comes naturally to most little ones. In a vegan home, this love is respected, nurtured, and allowed to grow to the fullest.

The contemporary English Vegan Society continues to describe veganism as involving more than diet. For instance, their Memorandum of Association, a legal document required to incorporate a company, was originally drafted in 1979 and the most recent version still declares [34]:

[Vegan] denotes a philosophy and way of living which seeks to exclude — as far as is possible and practical — all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, animals for food, clothing or any other purpose; and by extension, promotes the development and use of animal-free alternatives for the benefit of humans, animals and the environment.

The group's website says the following on its "Definition of veganism" page [35]:

Vegans avoid exploiting animals for any purpose, with compassion being a key reason many choose a vegan lifestyle. Accessories, clothing, bathroom items... animal products are found in more places than you might expect. Fortunately nowadays there are affordable and easily-sourced alternatives to just about everything.

A Melange of Meanings
The statements about veganism in this essay are united by a common thread: guidance for our relationships with animals who aren't human. The primary message is don't use or kill them. But some definitions refer to a ‘principle’, ‘philosophy’, ‘doctrine’, ‘reverence for all life’, and so on. Must vegans have specific motives for their behavior? I argue that only morality can provide coherent reasons for consistently and diligently avoiding nonhuman exploitation in our daily lives. However, I recommend excluding a motive from the definition of ‘vegan’. First of all, non-ethical motives have lead people to behave like vegans (though the effect is almost always transient). Second, more than one ethical system or approach has inspired people to refrain from using and killing nonhumans. Identifying a single motive for all vegans quickly becomes contentious. Finally, overloading ‘vegan’ with implications reduces the clarity of our message. Simple behavior-only definitions are easily understood. Moral arguments can still be made, and advocates can use terms other than vegan to represent separate theories or ideologies.

To conclude, a list of objectionable products and practices that helps indicate the breadth of a vegan's commitment. It was constructed by Batt in 1960s era England, but most items are relevant to modern vegans throughout the world [36].

Food: Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, butter, cheese, cream, lard, honey, and all made-up foods containing any of these
Clothing: Wool, leather, silk, reptile skins, etc.
Adornment: Fur, feathers, pearls, ivory, etc.
Toiletries: Soaps, cosmetics and creams containing animal fats and oils, lanolin [wool fat] and perfume ingredients obtained from animals under grossly cruel conditions
Household Goods: Hair and wool rugs and carpets, woolen blankets, feather pillows, brushes and brooms made of hair; oils, greases, polishes, etc., that include animal fats in the ingredients
Sports: Hunting, racing, shooting, fishing, etc.
Amusements: Circuses and all acts which include performing animals or birds; zoos wherein naturally free creatures are imprisoned—national parks and wildlife preserves are so much better and more rewarding for all concerned
Medicines: Vaccines, serums, etc., made from animals, not forgetting that millions of animals are used yearly for "testing" all kinds of drugs as well as shampoos and "beauty products"

Select ReferencesJoanne Stepaniak. "The Vegan Sourcebook" (2nd edition – 1998 book)

Victoria Moran. "Compassion: The Ultimate Ethic" (2nd edition – 1985 book)

Leah Leneman. "No Animal Food: The Road to Veganism in Britain, 1909-1944" (1999 article)

The Vegan Society. "An Introduction to Practical Veganism" (1972 pamphlet)

Jay Dinshah, editor. "Here's Harmlessness: An Anthology Of Ahimsa" (5th edition – 1993 book) published in March by the American Vegan Society. editions: 1964, 1968, 1970, 1973, 1993. contents: "Why Veganism?" by Eva Batt, "Beauty Without Cruelty" and "Co-operation" by Muriel Dowding, "Why are the Animals Here?" by Catherine Nimmo, "Peace and Harmony" by Roshan Dinshah, "Sane and Sensible Living" by Kuniyasu Daifuku, "Vanquishing the Serpent" by C.J. van Vliet, "Living the Simple Life" by Dugald Semple, "Autobiography of a Vegan" by Rubin Abramowitz, "The Garden of Ahimsa" by Kenneth Dalziel O'Brien, "Brotherhood and Understanding" by Fred Whittle, "Getting More Out of Life" Freya Dinshah, "My New Life of Harmlessness" and "Drugs in Retrospect" by Trisha Bell, "Non-Violence and Conscious Evolution" by Frey Ellis, "To Tell the Truth" and "Priorities" by Jay Dinshah, "A Matter of Timing" by Victoria Moran, "Vegetarianism and Friendship" by Tom Regan, "Nobility of Diet" by George Eisman, "Into the Light" by Michael Klaper

Kathleen Jannaway, editor. "Pioneers of the New Age: Reminiscences of Twelve Early Vegans" (1974 pamphlet) published in November by The Vegan Society. contents: "Thirty Years On" by Kathleen Jannaway, "Veganism Offers Freedom" by Margaret Thorne, "From the Lonely Farms" by Therese Tyack, "My Road to Veganism" by Stella Rex, "Freedom of Conscience" by M.J. Harries, "How a German Became a Vegan" by Werner Schrader, "The Healthiest Third of My Life" by Alan R. Cluer, "Thinking Things Through" by Harry Bonnie, "Improved Health from the Humane Diet" by Marie Dreyfus, "It Is Easier Than You Think" by Margaret Ball, "Out of the Dust of War" by Leslie Cross, "Veganism—My Vocation" by Arthur Ling, "From the Old School to the New Age" by Brian Gunn-King

Kathleen Jannaway, editor. "The Vegan Way... ...Why? & How?.. by 10 Very Different Vegans" (1981 pamphlet) published in September by The Vegan Society. contents: "Confessions of a Very Slow Starter" by Eva Batt, "Vegans First Scientists Second" by Gill and Chris Langley, "Better Late than Never" by Eileen Lloyd, "Walking the Vegan Way" by Laurence Main, "Diet for Athletes" by Jack McClelland, "Vegan: Doing for Himself in London" by Mick Miller, "My Contribution..." by Violet Mitchell, "No Milk! For Ever" by Diana Virgo

Interviews with Donald Watson
2002 by George Rodger and 2004 by Vegetarians in Paradise

The Vegan Society (England)
Back issues of "The Vegan News" and "The Vegan" dating from 1944

"Memorandum of Association"

"Vegan Views" Magazine
Article archive dating from 1976 to 2004. Complete first issue from 1975. Interview from 1986 with Arthur Ling and from 1977 with Kathleen Jannaway. Two memoirs of Kathleen Jannaway from 2003. (Additional memoir of Kathleen Jannaway by The Movement for Compassionate Living.)

"The Vegetarian" / "World Forum" Magazine
Fay K. Henderson. "Vegan Values" — winter 1947

Fay K. Henderson. "The Vegan Way of Life" — spring 1947

Donald Watson. "Should the Vegetarian Movement be Reformed?" — spring 1948

Dugald Semple. "Vegetarian Unity" — summer 1948

Donald Watson. "Should the Vegetarian Movement be Reformed? Donald Watson Answers His Critics" — fall 1948

IVU World Vegetarian Congresses
Dugald Semple. Remarks by Donald Watson at the 11th Congress (1947 report)

John Heron. "Veganism" (1957 essay) + R.M.A. Bockin. "Views on Veganism" (1951 article) both printed in "Souvenir of the XVth World Vegetarian Congress—India" (1957 book)

[0] George Roger. Interview with Donald Watson (2002)

[1] Joanne Stepaniak. "The Vegan Sourcebook" (2nd edition – 1998 book) page 1

[2] Leah Leneman. "No Animal Food: The Road to Veganism in Britain, 1909-1944" (1999 article)

[3] Donald Watson. "The Vegan News" (1944 newsletter)

Also available here: issuu.com/vegan_society/docs/the_vegan_news_1944

[4] Leah Leneman. "No Animal Food: The Road to Veganism in Britain, 1909-1944" (1999 article)

[5] Nathan Schneider. "Leslie Cross Source Materials" (2011 essay)

Harry Mather. Interview with Arthur Ling (1986)

Plamil Foods. "About Us"

Quote found here: George Roger. Interview with Donald Watson (2002)

[6] Leah Leneman. "No Animal Food: The Road to Veganism in Britain, 1909-1944" (1999 article)

[7] Serena Coles. "A Vegan Since 1944" (1967 article) appeared in the summer 1967 issue of "The Vegan" pages 2-4

Fay K. Henderson. "Vegan Values" (1947 article) appeared in the winter 1947 issue of "The Vegetarian" (number 4) pages 29-30

[8] Donald Watson. "The Vegan News" (1944 newsletter)

Fay K. Henderson. "Vegan Values" (1947 article) appeared in the winter 1947 issue of "The Vegetarian" (number 4) pages 29-30

Vegetarians in Paradise. 24 Carrot Award: Donald Watson (2004 interview)

[9] Joanne Stepaniak. "The Vegan Sourcebook" (2nd edition – 1998 book) pages 4-5

[10] Donald Watson. "The Vegan News" (1944 newsletter)

George Roger. Interview with Donald Watson (2002)

The Vegan Society. The Vegan Magazine

[11] E. L. Smith. "The Discovery and Identification of Vitamin B12" (1952 article)

[12] Eva Batt. "Why Veganism" (1964 essay) printed in "Here's Harmlessness: An Anthology Of Ahimsa", edited by Jay Dinshah (5th edition – 1993 book) page 7

[13] Leslie Cross. "Out of the Dust of War" (1974 essay) printed in "Pioneers of the New Age: Reminiscences of Twelve Early Vegans", edited by Kathleen Jannaway (1974 pamphlet) pages 18-19

[14] Fay K. Henderson. "Vegan Values" (1947 article) appeared in the winter 1947 issue of "The Vegetarian" (number 4) pages 29-30

This magazine was published independently by Geoffrey Rudd. Its title had previously been used by a publication of the London Vegetarian Society.

Kathleen Jannaway reported in a 1977 interview that 2567 people had joined the Vegan Society since 1944, but "that doesn't mean there are that many active people in the Society".

[15] Joanne Stepaniak. "The Vegan Sourcebook" (2nd edition – 1998 book) page 5

[16] Fay K. Henderson. "The Vegan Way of Life" (1947 article) appeared in the spring 1947 issue of "The Vegetarian" (number 1) pages 45-46

[17] Fay K. Henderson. "Vegan Values" (1947 article) appeared in the winter 1947 issue of "The Vegetarian" (number 4) pages 29-30

[18] Joanne Stepaniak. "The Vegan Sourcebook" (2nd edition – 1998 book) page 5

[19] Dugald Semple. Remarks by Donald Watson at the 11th IVU World Vegetarian Congress (1947 report)

[20] George Roger. Interview with Donald Watson (2002)

[21] Leslie Cross. "Veganism Defined" (1951 correspondence) appeared in the spring 1951 issue of "World Forum" (number 1 volume 5) pages 6-7

[22] Victoria Moran. "Compassion: The Ultimate Ethic" (2nd edition – 1985 book) page 18

[23] The Vegan Society. "An Introduction to Practical Veganism" (1972 pamphlet) inner cover

[24] Leslie Cross. "Out of the Dust of War" (1974 essay) printed in "Pioneers of the New Age: Reminiscences of Twelve Early Vegans", edited by Kathleen Jannaway (1974 pamphlet) pages 18-19

[25] Joanne Stepaniak. "The Vegan Sourcebook" (2nd edition – 1998 book) pages 6-9

Vegetarians in Paradise. 24 Carrot Award: Freya Dinshah (2003 interview)

American Vegan Society. "History"

Dorothy Gardner. "Centarian (Almost) Veggies" (1980 correspondence) appeared in a 1980 issue of "Vegetarian Times" (number 40) page 4

Linda Austin & Norm Hammond. "Oceano" (2001 book) page 39

[26] Joanne Stepaniak. "The Vegan Sourcebook" (2nd edition – 1998 book) page 9

The American Vegan Society's magazine is now a quarterly named "American Vegan".

[27] Catherine Nimmo. "Why are the Animals Here?" (1964 essay) printed in "Here's Harmlessness: An Anthology Of Ahimsa", edited by Jay Dinshah (5th edition – 1993 book) page 17

[28] Jay Dinshah. "To Tell the Truth" (1964 essay) printed in "Here's Harmlessness: An Anthology Of Ahimsa", edited by Jay Dinshah (5th edition – 1993 book) page 63. emphasis omitted. updated for 5th edition

[29] Nathan Schneider. "Eva Batt Source Materials" (2011 essay)

Victoria Moran. "Compassion: The Ultimate Ethic" (2nd edition – 1985 book) page 112

Muriel Dowding. "Beauty Without Cruelty" (1964 essay) printed in "Here's Harmlessness: An Anthology Of Ahimsa", edited by Jay Dinshah (5th edition – 1993 book) pages 13-15

Beauty Without Cruelty. "The History of Beauty Without Cruelty"

The Beauty Without Cruelty Charitable Trust was established in 1959 by Muriel Dowding. This group's trustees formed a cosmetics corporation named Beauty Without Cruelty in 1963. Although it has always refrained from testing on nonhuman animals and using many ingredients derived from them, BWC has reportedly sold products containing bees' wax and lanolin (a fat derived from sheeps' hair) in years past. According to information on the company's website, accessed July 2011, this is no longer the case.

[30] Eva Batt. "Why Veganism" (1964 essay) printed in "Here's Harmlessness: An Anthology Of Ahimsa", edited by Jay Dinshah (5th edition – 1993 book) pages 8, 9

[31] Victoria Moran. "Compassion: The Ultimate Ethic" (2nd edition – 1985 book) page 7

[32] Ibidem at page 17

[33] Ibidem at page 90

[34] The Vegan Society. "Memorandum of Association"

[35] The Vegan Society. "Definition of veganism"

[36] Eva Batt. "Why Veganism" (1964 essay) printed in "Here's Harmlessness: An Anthology Of Ahimsa", edited by Jay Dinshah (5th edition – 1993 book) pages 10-11. emphasis added